What is a Panic Attack?
Panic attacks and panic disorder are the most typical symptoms and causes of anxiety disorders.
One of the most prevalent psychiatric diseases is the conjunction of panic disorder with agoraphobia. Individuals with panic disorder have a 20-fold increase in agoraphobia.
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The following are some of the symptoms of panic attacks and panic disorder.
- The learning experience is negatively correlated to the presence of panic attacks, panic disorder, and agoraphobia panic disorder.
- Panic disorder develops as a result of difficult, stressful life experiences that cause problems.
- In married, cohabiting, and working adults, panic disorder is less common.
- The stress of city living, as well as the stress caused by urbanization, raises the likelihood of panic attacks and panic disorder
- Men had a longer length of illness than women, despite the fact that panic episodes, panic disorder, and agoraphobia are more common in women.
- Panic disorder is most common in people between the ages of 15 and 24. Female patients are usually between the ages of 35-44.
- The first panic attack often occurs in an out-of-home environment such as a street, shopping mall, public transportation vehicle, crowded bazaar.
- In most patients, there is an intense stress and turbulent period about 3 months before the first attack.
- Parental death in childhood, divorce of parents or being separated from parents for a long time, and sexual or physical abuse are important factors that trigger the development of panic attacks, agoraphobia and panic disorder.
- The risk is high in children of overprotective, authoritarian, strict and normative families.
- Anxiety in childhood and panic disorder in adult life show parallelism.
- The incidence of agoraphobia, panic attacks and panic disorder is higher in individuals with dependent personality traits and borderline and avoidant personality traits.
- Those with panic disorder are at risk for alcohol abuse.
- The rate of depression at some point in the life of a person who has had a panic attack or has a panic disorder is between 35-90%.
What Causes Panic Attacks?
A panic attack is defined as a clinical picture accompanied by physical and psychological symptoms, as well as strong anxiety and fear attacks that occur at any time of day, including sleep, and without warning.
The following are the physical signs and symptoms of a panic attack: Palpitation, stuttering heartbeats, a distinct feeling of heartbeats, chest tightness, chest discomfort, and respiratory distress with shortness of breath, dizziness, numbness and tingling in the brain and body, perspiration, nausea, and abdominal edema The body signs of a panic attack include the desire to go to the bathroom, yawning, and heat flashes.
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Dizziness, loss of balance, fainting, feeling of being outside of reality, feeling of the soul leaving the body, dread of dying, feeling of going insane, and fear of losing control are some of the psychological symptoms of panic attacks.
Symptoms of a panic attack appear suddenly, peak in 10 minutes, and then go away. Symptoms are usually gone by the time the patient arrives at the hospital. The poor mood and anxiety, on the other hand, can continue for several hours.
Panic attacks do not occur as a result of any external triggers in panic disorder. It’s unclear when and where it’ll occur.
There is a situational panic attack in social phobia and specialized phobias. A panic attack picture is triggered by the chance of meeting or experiencing a trigger situation.
Panic attacks can also happen when you’re sleeping. In this scenario, which occurs in 40% of panic disorder cases, the patient usually wakes up in the first third of sleep with shortness of breath, palpitations, and chest pain.
In the psychiatry literature, panic disorder is described as recurrent panic attacks and persistent anxiety disorder with specific attitude and anxiety symptoms between attacks.
In panic disorder, the frequency of panic attacks varies greatly; some people may have attacks every day, while others may have attacks without attacks. Patients initially relax in between episodes, but their tension and anxiety levels rise with time, and anticipatory worry develops.
Treatment for panic disorder
Two main drug groups, benzodiazepines (Diazepam, Clonazepam, Lorazepam, Alprazolam)and antidepressants (e.g Sertraline), are used in the treatment of panic disorder and controlling panic attacks. Among the antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most selective drugs in the treatment of panic disorders.
Drugs should be used under intensive psychiatric supervision in the treatment of panic disorder during pregnancy and lactation, emphasis should be made on appropriate drug selection, or non-drug methods should be employed. Activation of panic disorder is common in the postpartum period.
In the treatment of panic disorders, psychotherapeutic procedures outperform all other treatments. The therapy of panic attacks is based on behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, and psychodynamic techniques.
For panic attack treatment, cognitive behavioral therapy ensures that the individual defines incorrect interpretations and automatic thoughts. The effects of cognitive distortions are assessed and remedied. Treatment includes education regarding panic, anxiety, and the nature of anxiety disorders.
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In the treatment of panic attacks, respiratory training and breathing therapies to reduce the physiological effects of rapid breathing (hyperventilation) are also critical.
While cognitive therapy is used to correct false interpretations of bodily sensations, progressive overcoming exercises are used to reduce avoidance behavior.
Panic disorder is also treated with relaxation techniques, social skills training, problem-solving skills, and family therapy.
For the treatment of panic attacks and panic disorder, you can choose our list of medications for anxiety and panic attacks.